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Bhartiya Scriptures
Descension of
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Hinduism at a Glance
Sanatan Dharm
Sanskrit – The Mother
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(I - III)
  Part I
The Origin
 
  Part II
The Perfection
 
  Part III
Unique Features
 
Glossary of Terms

Glossary of Terms

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A

acharya.
  Those Divine personalities who descend to establish bhakti
(divine-love-consciousness) in the world and wrote on the philosophy of
Divine love and other bhakti-related books.

achintya bhedabhed vad.
  The philosophy of Jeev Goswami.

advait vad.
  Absolute monism of Shankaracharya.

ahladini or ahladini shakti.
  See hladini.

antahkaran.
  The mind with its four faculties called man (the emotional mind), buddhi
(the discriminative mind), chit (the section of the mind that holds all the sanskars)
and ahankar (the ego).

anuman.
  Inferential or circumstantial evidence.

anushtup chand.
  A poetic stanza of Sanskrit language (or Vedic verse) that has four parts and has 32 letters (8+8+8+8) in it.

apar dharm.
  The religious discipline and injunctions of do’s and don’ts that are explained in Bhartiya scriptures for uplifting the sattvic qualities of a human being in general. The discipline and rules of apar dharm vary according to the order of life of a person. It is also called the ‘varnashram dharm’ or ‘general dharm.’ They are the preliminary practices designed to establish the mind in sattvagun for the beginners who desire to realize God in their lifetime.

apbhransh.
  A partly mispronounced Sanskrit word that permanently enters into a locally spoken language, which is spoken by the people who are less educated in the Sanskrit language.

appearance.
  Descension of God on this earth planet in His eternal and original Divine form.

arti.
  Waving of light before a Deity or Guru. This is a part of worshipping schedule.

asan.
  A step of eightfold yog which means the sitting posture for doing the meditation.

Ascension.
  God going back into His Divine abode.

ashram.
  The residential place of a Saint and his disciple devotees whose prime aim of life is only God realization, and also a place where a seeker of God’s love receives devotional guidance.

ashtang yog.
  The eightfold yog as described in the Yog Darshan of Sage Patanjali.

ashtyam seva.
  A method of devotional remembrance and meditation introduced by Jagadguru Nimbarkacharya which means that a selfless devotee should remember the leelas of Radha Krishn whatever They normally do since the early morning when They get up from the bed till the night when They go to sleep.

ashvamedh yagya.
  A well-known royal yagya of ancient times in which a horse was worshipped and sanctified with the mantras of the Vedas. Then it was set free to roam about anywhere and it was followed by a group of warriors. Roaming in any direction, the horse would eventually approach and enter a neighboring kingdom. The king of that kingdom had either to accept the dependence of the one to whom the horse belonged, or put up a fight to keep his independence.

atmmayaya, atmmayam.
  The yogmaya or the most intimate and most potent personal power of Krishn.

avatar.
  The descension of God or a Divine personality on the earth planet.

avikrit parinam vad.
  In this mayic world, God has presented Himself in His original Divine form without being affected with the gunas of maya; that’s how He is omnipresent. This is called avikrit parinam vad.

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B

bahiranga shakti.
  The extroverted power, maya.

Bauddh.
  The philosophy or the religion, which is related to Mahatma Buddh, is called Bauddh.

bhagwan.
  Personal forms of God.

bhagwat dharm.
  Also known as par dharm. It is the main dharm of a soul which brings God realization. It is called bhakti.

bhakt.
  The devotee of a personal form of God, like Krishn bhakt. The plural of bhakt is bhaktas.

bhakti.
  The deep loving feelings of a devotee’s heart for his beloved God where all of his personal requisites are merged into his Divine beloved’s overwhelming Grace which He imparts for His loving devotee. The person doing bhakti is called bhakt.

bhao.
  The emotional feelings of love and longing of a selfless devotee for a personal form of God. These feelings of divine-love-consciousness physically appear as tears etc., and produce a growing confidence in the realization of Radha Krishn love and having Their vision.

Bhao.
  The Divine ecstatic state of a Saint, or Radha Krishn.

Bharat.
  The short term of Bharatvarsh is Bharat, which was called ‘Hindustan’ by the Muslims and ‘India’ by the British. Accordingly, the word Hindu and Indian came into being.

Bhartiya.
  That which belongs to or relates to Bharatvarsh and its religion and history.

bhashya.
  A detailed commentary on Brahm Sutra, the Upnishads or the Gita.

bhoj patra.
  A paper-thin bark of a medium size Himalayan native tree on which the scriptures were written in ancient times. It could easily be peeled off. It is flexible and strong but it doesn’t last for more than 500 to 800 years.

bhu swarg.
  It is the celestial part of bhu lok. Bhu lok contains the earth planet.

brahm.
  The supreme God or the absolute Divinity, Who is absolutely great, and makes a soul great like Himself after God realization. Maha Vishnu, Ram and Krishn are, in general, called brahm.

brahm drav.
  The nirakar brahm where gyani and yogi Saints enter after death. There is absolutely neither pain nor Bliss.

brahm gyan.
  The Divine knowledge of brahm which is received with the Grace of God by the follower of the path of gyan or yog at the culmination of his practice.

Brahm kalp.
  The very first day of Brahma when he himself was created (by God Vishnu).

brahm sambandh mantra.
  A brief statement in the style of a mantra that was introduced by Vallabhacharya. It is a perfect description of self-submission to Krishn.

Braj.
  The present Mathura district in India is called Braj. Krishn lived and played in Braj for the first twelve years of His stay on this earth planet. Barsana, Gahvarban, Prem Sarovar, Nandgaon, Kamban, Govardhan, Radha Kund, Kusum Sarovar, Vrindaban and Gokul are the important places in Braj where Radha Krishn along with Gopis and Gwalbals did most of Their leelas.

Braj bhasha.
  A local Hindi dialect (spoken in Mathura district) in which the rasik Saints wrote the leelas of Krishn.

braj leela.
  Those leelas where all the Brajwasis join and are the absolute experiences of Krishn’s intimate loving Bliss which He gave to His playmates, mother Yashoda and the Gopis, and where the Divine almightiness can never enter.

Brajwasi.
  The dwellers of Braj during the time of Krishn. Wasi means ‘the dweller’.

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C

chand.
  A poetic stanza or a Vedic verse.

Chandra Vansh.
  The lunar dynasty that started from Vaivaswat Manu’s daughter, Ela.

chatriya.
  The second of the four kinds of castes of India. They were supposed to be the protectors of the society, so they were warrior kinds of people. (Most of the writers write this word as ‘kshatriya’ which is an improper pronunciation.)

chaturyugi.
  A cycle of time comprised of four yugas equalling 4.32 million years.

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D

damru.
  The mini hand-drum that Shiv holds in His hand and which He plays during His ecstatic dance induced by the thrilling effects of Krishn love. Once fourteen very distinct sounds came out of it which became the basic aphorisms of the Sanskrit grammar of Panini.

darshan.
  Dedicated vision, or viewing or seeing. It is in relation to a Saint, a Deity of God, or God Himself in His personal form. Like the vision of God, viewing a Deity, or respectfully seeing a Saint.

deenbandhu.
  One of the titles of God mentioned in the Bhartiya scriptures to describe the kindness of God. He loves all the souls and He atones the sins of even the greatest sinner when he humbly remembers Him.

Deity.
  Statue of God or Goddess specially made and established at an altar for devotion and meditations with Godly feelings ascribed to it.

descension.
  Appearance of God on this earth planet.

devotee.
  The one who selflessly remembers God to get His vision or love.

dharm.
  In general, dharm means the religious discipline for the four orders of life. It is called samanya dharm (ordinary or general). Maintaining celibacy and studying is called brahmacharya. Family life is called grihasth. A devout and renounced life (but living with the spouse) is vanaprasth, and total renunciation for God realization is called sanyas. General dharm also includes the social disciplines and code of conduct according to our scriptures. It is also called varnashram dharm or apar dharm. The dharm that takes a soul to God is called par dharm and it is only selfless devotion to God, called bhakti, with wholehearted faith and confidence.

dharmadhishthan.
  God is called dharmadhishthan which means that the Sanatan (eternal) Dharm resides in God as a Divine power. It is revealed by God through Brahma before the beginning of human civilization and is represented through the Upnishads and the Puranas.

dharm shastra.
  The scripture.

dharna.
  A step of eightfold yog which means to concentrate the mind at a particular place or point inside the body, or outside the body.

dhatu.
  The root word from which a Sanskrit word is formed.

dhatu path.
  The dictionary of the dhatus given at the end of Panini’s grammar.

dhyan.
  A stage of the concentration practice in eightfold yog when the mind is fully engrossed in the single-minded thought of the desired objects.

Divine.
  That which is beyond the maya and is related to God, God’s abode and God Himself.

divine-love-consciousness.
  The consciousness of the closeness of Radha Krishn (or any personal form of God), when a devotee lovingly remembers His name, form, virtues or leelas, is called divine-love-consciousness.

dundubhi.
  The celestial drum sound.

dvait vad.
  The philosophy of Jagadguru Madhvacharya which means perfect dualism between God, soul and maya. God is absolute, supreme, Gracious, omnipresent and omniscient; and soul is infinitesimal, under the bondage of maya and sinful.

dvaitadvait vad.
  The philosophy of Jagadguru Nimbarkacharya called mono-dualism which means that between God and His Divine powers there is perfect duality, yet there is perfect oneness.

dwapar or dwaparyug.
  One of the four yugas (cycles of time). It keeps on repeating perpetually.

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G

gandharv.
  The musicians of the celestial abode. They are considered to be of a lower rank.

God.
  The supreme, all-powerful Divinity, Who is kind, gracious and omnipresent in His Divine form in the entire creation, and also has an omnipresent impersonal aspect of His Divine being. In our writings we use it as an equivalent to the word bhagwan.

Gopis.
  The maidens of Braj during the descension period of Radha Krishn.

Govardhan.
  The Govardhan hill where Krishn used to graze the cows. It is the sacred hill of Braj.

Grace.
  Grace is the personal power of God which is synonymous to His Blissful personality. Thus, Grace itself is the Divine Bliss. God’s Grace or a Saint’s Grace is the same, because the power of Grace is on.

grihasth.
  One of the four orders of life; a family person.

gun, gunas.
  The three characteristics or qualities of the illusive energy maya which is manifested in the form of the universe. They are sattvagun (the pious or good quality), tamogun (the evil or bad quality) and rajogun (the mixture of good and bad qualities).

guru, guru tattva.
  The Divine power that reveals God to a soul is called guru tattva which is just a gracious act of the power of Grace. Saints represent the Grace and Bliss of God on the earth planet, so they are also called 'guru'.

Gwalbal.
  A playmate of Krishn.

gyani, gyan, gyan marg.
  The followers of impersonal aspect of God are called gyani, and their impersonal concept and understanding is called gyan. Marg means ‘the path’.

gyan yog.
  When the practice of yog is predominated with bhakti, then it becomes gyan yog.

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H

hiranyagarbh.
  It denotes a state of the manifested form of maya which is associated and represented by God Himself, and which holds all the worlds within, and where God remains omnipresent.

hladini or ahladini shakti.
  The power of affection or the Bliss of Bliss whose efflorescence is ‘Divine love.’ It is the most important power of supreme God.

hota.
  The priest who invokes the gods with the mantras of the Rigved in a yagya.

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I

Itihas.
  The Mahabharat and the Ramayan are called the Itihas (history books).

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J

Jagadguru.
  An eternal Saint who specially descends on the earth planet with the will of God, writes the explanations of the Brahm Sutra, the Gita and the Upnishads, and establishes their religion and math.

jap.
  It is the repetition of the name of God while counting it on the bead-chain, which the doer holds in his right hand.

jeev shakti.
  A formless (nirakar) Divine power of God of absolute nature which contains all the unlimited number of souls. It is just a dormant Divine intellect, called ‘chit’.

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K

kaivalya mokch.
  The state of a gyani or yogi Saint called liberation. It is a ‘no-experience’ state forever that he receives after his death.

kal.
  The eternal ‘time’ energy (along with other forces) which keeps the universe running continuously.

kaliyug.
  The age of materialism, which is the existing one.

Kalp.
  A cycle of time equaling 4,320 million years, which is one day in Brahm Lok (the abode of Brahma).

kalp pralaya, or pralaya.
  The partial destruction of the earth planet when the sun grows and becomes so hot that everything is burned on the earth planet. This is the transition state at the end of every kalp when the three celestial abodes bhu, bhuv and swah are destroyed.

Kamdeo.
  The god of beauty and love of the celestial abode. His wife is called Rati.

karan sharir.
  The veil of maya which covers the soul. It is the eternal ignorance. It is destroyed only with the Grace of God at the time of God realization.

karm, karmas.
  The good and bad actions of a person. They are stored in a section of the mind. They become the cause of the next incarnation.

karm bhoomi.
  This earth planet is called karm bhoomi because this is the only place where a human being receives the outcome of his actions and thoughts.

karm yog.
  When bhakti is predominantly added to the sattvic good karmas, it is then called the karm yog.

karmic.
  That which is related to the karmas, or the consequence of the karmas.

kheer.
  A sweet pudding made from milk, rice and sugar with dry nuts.

kriyaman.
  The actions of one’s present life.

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L

leela, leelas.
  The Divine actions of any kind. The pastimes, sports, plays and all the actions of Radha Krishn (along with the Brajwasis) or any other personal form of God are called leelas. All the actions of Divine personalities (God or Saint) are Gracious and Divine. The place where Radha Krishn did any leela is called leelasthali. Sthal means ‘the place’.

leshavidya.
  The reflection of maya over the mind of Gyani and Yogi Saints.

Liberation.
  The total elimination of the mind along with the past uncountable accumulated karmas of a soul.

lok.
  The abode of a personal form of God.

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M

maha pralaya.
  The ‘no-creation’ state where all the creative energies and the forces (maya, kal and karm) remain in an absolutely subtle and dormant state. This is the absolute dissolution of this universe when only abstract-like original mayic energy, called mool prakriti, is left, and it remains absorbed in God.

maha yug.
  The four yugas (satyug, tretayug, dwaparyug and kaliyug) are collectively called one maha yug or chaturyug.

mahan.
  The first activated phase of prakriti (maya), which is activated by the will of God after maya pralaya.

maharas.
  It is the very special leela that happened in Vrindaban in Braj. It was the descension of the true Vrindaban Bliss on the earth planet when the Grace of Krishn established Divine Vrindaban on the soils of Braj, and in that Divine space, Shree Raseshwari Radha Rani, Who is the life-essence of Krishn’s all-greatness, revealed the most intimate Divine Bliss to all the Gopis on the Sharad Poornima night. On that particular night, Radha, Krishn, and all the Gopis sang, danced and played together in an extremely elevated Divine state which is only seen in Divine Vrindaban.

mahatmya.
  It literally means ‘the description of the greatness of…’

manas putra.
  The 10 Sages produced from the mind of Brahma. Their names are: Atri, Angira, Pulastya, Mareechi, Pulah, Kratu, Bhrigu, Vashishth, Dakch and Narad.

manav gandharv.
  The lowest celestial abode of the gods as described in the Upnishad.

mantra.
  The evocative sentence, verse, or stanza related to: (a) The propitiation of the celestial gods to be used in the fire ceremonies (yagya), or (b) for general prayer to supreme God.

mantra drishta.
  It means the Rishis who observed (in their Divine mind) the mantras of the Vedas, retained them in their heart and then produced them in the world.

manvantar.
  The second biggest cycle of time which is of 308.57142 million years. The current manvantar is called Vaivaswat manvantar.

material.
  That which is not ‘Divine’ (the whole physical and subtle cosmos is material).

material consciousness.
  The belief that the luxuries of the world are the sure means of happiness.

math.
  The building of the main center of the religious propagation.

maya.
  Maya is an eternally existing mindless, lifeless and delusive power of God that appears and multiplies itself in the form of this universe. It has three qualities: Sattvagun (pious), rajogun (normal or selfish or a mixture of good and bad qualities) and tamogun (evil).

mayavadi.
  Such philosophies and people who, in the name of God, despise the true path to God and introduce materialism in the disguise of spiritual practices.

mayic.
  That which is related to maya and mayic manifestations.

mokch or mukti.
  Liberation from the mayic bondage of birth and death.

mool prakriti.
  The maya in its original dormant form.

mumukcha.
  A deep and intense desire to receive liberation that develops in the heart of the follower of nirakar brahm (gyan or yog) at the height of his practice.

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N

nad.
  The inner sattvic sound (as described in Yogshikhopnishad) which an evolved yogi listens to in his meditation.

nakchatra.
  The lunar asterisms.

nam sankirtan.
  The chanting of the Divine name.

narak.
  The lower abodes of hell with various forms of punishment.

nastik.
  The one who disbelieves or is disrespectful towards the Vedas, Puranas, acharyas and the personal forms of God and criticizingly abuses them is called nastik, the atheist.

nikunj darshan.
  Nikunj or kunj is a beautiful secluded area where blossoming trees, flowering bushes, creepers and perfumed flowers grow together to create such a sheltered and shaded setting where Radha, Krishn and Gopis could sit and play and dance together. Thus, visualizing Radha Krishn in a nikunj is called nikunj darshan.

nikunj leela.
  The leela of Radha Krishn where only Gopis associate. (Thus, all the leelas of Divine Vrindaban are the nikunj leelas.)

nirakar.
  The formless aspect of God which is established in the personal form of God (and all the personal forms of God are established in the personality of Krishn).

nirakar brahm or nirgun nirakar brahm.
  The formless and non-perceivable existence of absolute Divinity.

nirvan.
  Nirvan word means to extinguish (the flame of desires). This term was used by Gautam Buddh. It means a kind of desireless and thoughtless state of the mind. (It is not liberation from maya.)

nirvikalp samadhi.
  Nirvikalp means a total thoughtless state of the mind, and samadhi means to be fully absorbed in the sattvic state of the mind or in the Divine state. Thus, this term is used for both, a gyani or yogi devotee of impersonal God, or a gyani or yogi Saint.

nitya siddha.
  The Saint who is a Saint from eternity (the eternal associate of God).

niyam.
  A step of eightfold yog which means observing purity of body and mind, improving tolerance, doing regular practice of yog, study of scriptures, and worship to God.

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P

pad.
  Songs written by the rasik Saints describing the leelas of Radha Krishn.

panch mahabhoot.
  The subtle forms of the five prime elements: space, air, heat (fire), water and earth.

panch tanmatra.
  The absolutely subtle forms of the panch mahabhoot.

panchang.
  A journal with full astrological facts and figures written in a date-wise manner for the whole year.

panchikaran.
  The unification of the five subtle elements.

pandit.
  A Sanskrit scholar of India.

par dharm.
  This is the main dharm of a soul, also called bhagwat dharm, which brings God realization. This is direct devotion to God in His personal form. It is called bhakti.

param vyom.
  Another name for Vaikunth abode.

paramhans.
  A yogi or gyani Saint who is fully absorbed in the Blissful state of his conscious samadhi.

Paramhans Sanhita.
  Sanhita means the collection of the Divine events, and paramhans means the Saint who is fully absorbed in the Divine Bliss. Shukdeo was in this state since he was born. Thus the sanhita which is said by Shukdeo is called Paramhans Sanhita. It is the Bhagwatam.

parardh.
  Half of Brahma’s life.

parmatma.
  The supreme God.

pitri yagya.
  The fire ceremony (yagya) for the dead in the family as described in the Shraut Sutras.

prakrit literature or language.
  The local vernacular speech of a general rural area. It is not the name of any vernacular language but it is a general class of a local country-style dialect of broken Sanskrit words and its apbhransh.

prakrit pralaya.
  The complete dissolution of a brahmand (planetary system and its celestial abodes) after the death of one Brahma.

prakriti purush vivek.
  It means the careful understanding of all the aspects of prakriti (the mayic creation) and the Divinity (purush God); and then attaching the mind to purush (God) and detaching the mind from the entire creation of prakriti.

pralaya.
  See kalp pralaya.

pranav.
  A Divine word for nirakar brahm.

pranayam.
  A step of eightfold yog which means breathing exercises for quieting the agitation of the mind.

prapatti.
  This term was used by Jagadguru Ramanujacharya to express the feelings of a devotee who very humbly surrenders his heart, mind and soul at the lotus feet of his loving God and earnestly desires for His Divine vision.

prasthan trayi.
  It means the prime Upnishads, the Gita and the Brahm Sutra.

prarabdh.
  The fate or luck of a person.

pratyahar.
  A step of eightfold yog which means intellectually controlling all kinds of desires of sensual gratification.

premdan.
  To impart Divine love to the disciple on complete purification of his heart.

prema bhakti.
  It is the selfless loving adoration with deep love and longing for Radha Krishn. It is also called raganuga bhakti and is the means of entering into Golok or Vrindaban abode.

pret lok.
  The spirit world with extreme sufferings where selfish and worldly human beings go after death. It is described in the Puranas.

purush.
  The Divine personality of God.

Purush Sookt.
  The hymns that describe the form and the greatness of the omnipresent supreme personality of God in the Rigved (10/90).

purushottam.
  The supreme personality of God.

pushti marg.
  The path of devotion to Krishn as described by Vallabhacharya, where a devotee, depending upon the Graciousness of Krishn, humbly surrenders and dedicates his whole being for the service of Krishn.

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R

ras.
  The bliss of Divine love.

raas.
  The leela of singing and dancing of Radha Krishn, with the Gopis.

raganuga bhakti.
  The direct practical path of selfless loving devotion to Radha Krishn as shown and revealed in the Bhagwatam. It is such a devotion that follows the pattern of Brajwasi’s love for Radha Krishn. This term was used by Chaitanya Mahaprabhuji.

raj, rajas or rajogun.
  It is one of the qualities of maya. See maya.

rasik.
  The Divine personality who has attained the vision and love of Radha Krishn is called a rasik Saint.

religion.
 

Literally, the general meaning of word religion is a system of faith and worship to God (Who is the creator and the governor of the universe), or a celestial god; or a belief and practice that is introduced by a holy man.
The Latin word ‘religio’, which originally meant ‘obligation or bond’, was later on improvised to confer the meaning of ‘bond between god/God and the human beings’. In old French, a branch of Romance languages which was a development of Latin language, it was written as ‘religion’. From there it was adopted into the English language. But, the standard modern meaning of the word ‘religion’ was developed as late as the 16th century AD.
We use this word in a very wide sense:
(1) The one single eternal universal religion for all the souls of the world which is called Sanatan Dharm in Sanskrit;
(2) the system of devotion and worship to God which is introduced by a Divine personality and based on the teachings of Sanatan Dharm, just like, the religion of Vallabhacharya or Nimbarkacharya etc; and
(3) the other popular religions of the world.


richa.
  Mantra of the Vedas.

ritvij.
  One of the four priests in a Vedic yagya: (a) Hota is the one who invokes the gods with the mantras of the Rigved, (b) addhvaryu is the one who performs all the rituals of the yagya according to the Yajurved, (c) udgata is the one who sings the mantras of Samved, and (d) brahma is the one who all over supervises the functionings of the yagya.

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S

sadhana bhakti.
  It means devotional bhakti.

sadhu.
  A hermit who has left his family and is living a renounced life.

sagun sakar, sakar, or sakar brahm.
  It means the all-virtuous personified form of God. Sakar is the main form of God and, with the sakar form, He/She is omnipresent with all the Divine virtues such as: Graciousness, kindness, all-Blissfulness, all-lovingness, and many more.

Saint.
  The one who has visualized and realized God in any form, and whose teachings are based on the themes and the guidelines of the Gita, Bhagwatam and the Upnishads which are our prime scriptures. There are three categories of Saints: gyani Saints, bhakt Saints, and rasik Saints.
(1) Gyani Saints are those who have attained the impersonal (nirakar) form of God. They are of two kinds; gyani Saint and yogi Saint.
(2) Bhakt Saints are those who have attained a personal form of God, like: Vishnu, Durga, Shiv, Ram or Krishn.
(3) Those bhakt Saints who attain the Divine love form of God (Ram or Krishn) are called the rasik Saints (ras means the Divine love), but, generally speaking, the rasik word refers to those Saints who have received the vision and Divine love of Radha Krishn.

Saket lok.
  The abode of Bhagwan Ram.

Samadhi.
  Ecstasy, total absorption of the mind, or a thoughtless state of the mind. It is of two kinds; devotional and Divine.
1. (a) Devotional samadhi of a yogi relates to the pious (sattvic) quality of maya, and,
(b) of a bhakt relates to the pious bhao state of the bhakti where his mind drowns in the feeling of loving affinity of his beloved God. The quality and the class of the samadhi of a yogi or a bhakt devotee corresponds to the selflessness and the state of his devotional evolution on the path of God realization.
2. (a) The Divine samadhi of a Yogi or Gyani is primarily of only one kind because it relates to one single formless (nirakar) and non-virtuous brahm. There are two states of this samadhi. The first one is called sahaj samadhi, which is the awakened state of the mind with natural Divine engrossment; and the second one is called brahmleen state, which is the fully unconscious state of the mind in total Divine engrossment. There is also a variation of sahaj samadhi when there is a kind of deeply engrossed consciousness. It is also called samadhi, or dyanavastha, in which the yogi Saint remains in a meditative state, bodily semi-conscious or unconscious and mentally conscious where he could see or hear anything of his own liking.
(b) Samadhi of a bhakt Saint is of many kinds and forms. The most fascinating ecstasies happen in the field of Divine love of Radha Krishn. For instance: a rasik Saint of gopi bhao experiences four kinds of samadhis in all the four states of his Divine mind (conscious, subconscious, unconscious, and fully unconscious); and all of these sixteen kinds of samadhis are multifold and imbued with the amazing delight of ever-new charm of Radha Krishn Bliss.

samudra manthan.
  The ocean churning event in the cheer sagar (the celestial ocean of milk of God Vishnu).

Sanatan Dharm.
  The eternal (sanatan) universal religion. It contains the knowledge for the spiritual well-being of all the souls. It provides the guidelines for all kinds of people of the world, which, if followed, leads them towards God realization.

sanchit karm.
  The unlimited accumulated karmas of unlimited lifetimes of a soul. They are stored in the unconscious section of the mind.

sandhini shakti.
  The power of almightiness of God.

Sankadik.
  They are four brothers and the topmost Gyanis who appeared at the beginning of creation of this world.

sankirtan, nam sankirtan.
  Chanting of the name, form, virtues and leelas of any form of God.

sanskar.
  A subtle imprint (record) of every thought and action (in its full character) on the mind of a person. Conditioned reflex of each and every thought and action. There are uncountable sanskars (good, bad and devotional) of uncountable lifetimes of a soul in his mind, but the sanskars of a few immediate past lives hold the prominence in the existing life of a person.

sanyas.
  The renounced order of life for the service of God and God realization. The one who takes this order is called sanyasi.

satsang.
  Faithful association with a Saint in any way: having his darshan, having a personal meeting with him or attending his discourses. Such devotional meetings and services are also called satsang where there is a discourse, or chanting of the Divine names, forms, leelas and virtues with pure devotional motivations and on the guidelines of a Saint. The true satsang releases personal prejudice, develops humbleness in the heart, loosens the attachment of the world and brings you closer to your beloved God.

sattvic, sattvagun.
  It is one of the qualities of maya. See maya.

satya lok.
  The topmost seventh celestial abode where Brahma, the supreme god of the celestial world, lives.

shastra.
  The scriptures relating the general, social or devotional discipline of a spiritual living.

shoonya Vad.
  The philosophy of nothingness or the philosophy of mayavad.

shradh.
  A religious Vedic ceremony related to the appeasement of the souls of the family members who are dead.

shruti.
  Another word for the Vedas which means ‘to have retained in the Divine mind simply by listening’. The knowledge of the Vedas was transferred from Rishi to Rishi. They were Divine personalities so they were capable of retaining the Divine knowledge of the Vedas in their mind.

siddhi.
  The yogic powers (para psychological powers).

soul.
  Part of the Divine power called jeev shakti that are unlimited in number, infinitesimal in size, initially Divine in quality but eternally blemished by maya. All of the souls have a chance to realize God if they follow the guidelines of selfless devotion (bhakti) to God.

Surya Vansh.
  The Solar dynasty.

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tamas, tamogun.
  It is one of the qualities of maya. See maya.

Tantra books.
  Tantra books describe a strict-disciplinary-formulative practice of mantra worship. They are of three kinds; sattvic, rajas and tamas. Some of the books relate to hath yog type of meditation. Some of them (like Rudra Yamal and Krishn Yamal) also teach pure bhakti to a personal form of God; but, being very technical in their forms of practices, they are not popular.

tattvamasi.
  A phrase from the Upnishad that tells about the eternal relationship of an infinitesimal soul with the supreme God.

theory.
  The word ‘theory’ we use in both senses:
(a) Eternally existing definite facts that are related to soul, maya, God, Saints, creation, God realization and the Divine existences, and are described in the Divinely produced Bhartiya scriptures. Just like, the theory of the Upnishads, or the Bhagwatam, or creation, or God realization, etc.
(b) Assumed principles or system of reasonings, or postulated intellectual representations corresponding to the modern science related to a phenomenon or an existence that is not fully comprehensible to a human mind through direct perception. These are the concepts of the human mind. Just like, the (big bang) theory of creation, or the theory of evolution of life on the earth planet, or the writings of the western philosophers in relation to God and soul etc.

tirth.
  Holy places in India that are related to a descension of God, or a great historical Saint lived there whose Divine presence made it holy.

titikcha.
  To improve physical tolerance from heat and cold and to improve mental tolerance if someone says anything to you which you don't like.

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U

unadi.
  A section of Ashtadhyayi that explains the formation of the words of Vedic sanhita.

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vaidhi bhakti.
  A regulated form of formal devotion to God.

Vaikunth.
  The Divine abode of God Maha Vishnu. The abodes of God Shiv, Goddess Durga and other almighty forms of God are also a part of Vaikunth abode. (Vaikunth is also pronounced as Baikunth in Hindi language.)

Vaishnav.
  The selfless worshipper of Bhagwan Vishnu, Ram or Krishn.

varnashram dharm.
  The prescribed religious practices (according to the Vedas and the scriptures) for heart purification for the people of the four orders of life and for the four caste system of the society. The four orders of life are: Religious student, family man, partly renounced man and fully renounced man, respectively called, brahmacharya, grihasth, vanprasth and sanyas.

Vrindaban.
  The place in Mathura district (India) where Krishn did maharas on the Sharad Poornima night about 5,000 years ago. (In the Sanskrit language it is pronounced as Vrindavan, but in the Hindi language it is pronounced both ways.)

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yam.
  A step of eightfold yog which means observing truthfulness, nonviolence and celibacy etc.

yagya.
  The pious worship involving fire ceremonies conducted to develop the sattvic (pious) quality of the mind of a person who had worldly desires and attachments in the world.

yog.
  It is an eightfold system of very disciplined form of meditation which is described in the Yog Darshan of Sage Patanjali. Its aim is to neutralize the mind from all kinds of attachments, attractions, likings, dislikings and loving emotions, and then to enter into thoughtless samadhi. It has to be practiced for a very, very long time. On this path, a yogi desires to seek union with the impersonal (nirakar) aspect of God in order to receive the liberation from the eternal bondage of maya. The one who practices yog is called a yogi.

yogic.
  That which is related to yog.

yogmaya.
  The most intimate personal power of God that gives life, liveliness, and Bliss to the entire Divine phenomena, including God Himself, is called yogmaya. It is the power of doing, undoing, and reverse doing capability.
(a) This power manifests all kind, class or denomination of absolute or non-absolute eternal or non-eternal and imaginable or non-imaginable happenings related to any of the Divine or material phenomena. It means a power of all-doing capability.
(b) This power undoes the entire creation during maha pralaya, terminates the eternal hold of maya on a soul and dissolves his unlimited past karmas on God realization.
(c) This power reverses the definition of an infinitesimal chit from soulhood to Sainthood (upon God realization) by awarding an eternally inflicted, spot-existing, dissolute, limited and death bound soul with the Divine body and mind of unlimited and absolute Blissful capacity for eternity.
(d) This is the power which Graciously makes the entire Divine phenomena Blissful; manifests the loving leelas of Radha Krishn; and Graces the souls with the Divine experiences.
The absoluteness of yogmaya is Radha Rani Herself (as said in the Bhagwatam) Whose partial manifestation is found in all the forms of God and His powers according to Their Divine status. In short you can understand that this is the most miraculous power in God with which He conducts all of His Gracious activities.

yug.
  It is a cycle of ‘time’. According to our scriptures there are three main cycles of time which determine the time schedule of our planetary system, the brahmand. The smallest cycle is called chaturyug or mahayug. It consists of four consecutive yugas: satyaug of 1.728 million years, treta of 1.296 million years, dwapar of .864 million years and kaliyug of .432 million years. All these four yugas keep on rolling forward ceaselessly in the same sequence. Seventy one cycles of four yugas is called one manvantar, which is the second bigger cycle of time; and one thousand cycles of the four yugas (or fourteen manvantars) is called one kalp, which is one day of our creator Brahma, and it is the third bigger cycle of time.

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